### Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

#### Abstract

Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.

Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education

#### References

Aslan, D. & Arnas, Y. A. (2007). Three- to six- year-old children’s recognition of geometric shapes. International Journal of Early Years Education, 15(1), 83-104.

Battista, M. T. (2001). Shape makers. Computers in the Schools, 17(1-2), 105-120. Bell, F.H. (1978). Teaching and learning mathematics in secondary school. Dubuqe, Iowa :Wm C. Brown company.

Chang, K., Sung, Y., & Lin, S. (2007). Developing geometry thinking through multimedia learning activities. Computers in Human Behaviour, 23, 2212-2229

Clements, D. H. & Sarama, J. (1995). Design of a logo environment for elementary geometry. Journal of Mathematical Behaviour, 14, 381-398.

Clements, D. H. & Sarama, J. (2009). Learning and teaching early math: The learning trajectory approach. New York: Rouletge

Clements, D. H., Battista, M. T., Sarama, J., Swaminathan, S., & McMillen, S. (1997). Students‟ development of length concept in a logo based unit on geometric paths. Journal for Research in

Mathematics Education, 28(1), 70-95.

Clements, D. H., Swaminathan, S., Hannibal, M. A. Z., & Sarama, J. (1999). Young children‟s concepts of shape. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(2), 192-212.

Crowley, M.L. (1987). The van Hiele model of the development of geometric thought. In M.M.Lindquist, Ed., Learning and teaching geometry, K-12 (pp. 1-16). Reston, VA: NCTM

de Lange, J. (1987). Mathematics, insight and meaning. Utrecht: OW & OC.

Erez, M. M. & Yerushalmy, M. (2006). “If you can turn a rectangle into a square, you can turn a square into a rectangle …” young students experience the dragging tool. International Journal

of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 11, 271-299.

Fox, T.B. (2000). Implications of research on children‟s understanding of geometry. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6, 572-576.

Freudenthal, H. (1991). Revisiting Mathematics Education: China Lectures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fuys, D., Geddes, D., & Tischler, R. (Eds.). (1984). English Translation of Selected Writings of Dina van Hiele-Geldof and Pierre M. Van Hiele. Brooklyn: Brooklyn College.

Gravemeijer, K. (1994). Developing Realistic Mathematics Education. Utrecht: CD Beta Press.

Gravemeijer, K., & Cobb, P. (2006). Design research from the learning design perspective. Educational design research (pp. 17-51). London: Routledge.

Gravemeijer, K.P.E (2010). Realistic Mathematics Education Theory as a Guideline for Problem- Centered, Interactive Mathematics Education. In Sembiring, R. K., Hoogland, K., & Dolk, M., (Eds), A Decade of PMRI in Indonesia, Bandung, Utrecht: APS International.

Gurevich, I., Gorev, D., & Barabash, M. (2005). The computer as an aid in the development of geometrical profiency: a different approach. International Journal of mathematics education in Science and Technology, 36(2-3), 286-302

Hannibal, M.A. (1999). Young children‟s developing understanding of geometric shapes. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5, 353-357.

Mistretta, R. M. (2000). Enhancing geometric reasoning. Adolescence, 35(138), 365-379.

Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers and powerful ideas. Brighton, Sussex : Harvester Press.

Schifter, D. (1999). Learning geometry: Some insights drawn from teacher writing. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5, 360-366.

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

**Journal on Mathematics Education**

Kampus FKIP Bukit Besar

Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar

Palembang - 30139

p-ISSN: 2087-8885 | e-ISSN: 2407-0610

Journal on Mathematics Education is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats

**Indexed in:**