The Analysis of Proportional Reasoning Problem in the Indonesian Mathematics Textbook for Junior High School

Rahmah Johar, Sri Yusniarti, Saminan Saminan

Abstract


The lack of Indonesian students achievement in the international assessment is doe to several factors. Students are not familiar with the problems requiring reasoning, in particular the proportional reasoning. This research aims to identify the distribution and the Level of Cognitive Demands (LCD) of the proportional reasoning problems found in the Year 7 and Year 8 mathematics textbooks of the 2013 curriculum (revised edition 2014). The data collection is conducted by identifying the proportional reasoning problems found in the whole chapters of the textbooks which are then analysed and classified using the Smiths and Stein’s criteria of LCD (1998). The results reveal that the distribution of the proportional reasoning problems is not equal in the Year 7 and Year 8 textbooks. The proportional reasoning problems are only found in the four chapters namely: Ratio, Rectangle and Triangle, Linear Equation and Comparison, which represent different LCD including Lower-LCD (Low-M and Low-P) and Higher-LCD (High-P and High-DM). A total of 33 proportional reasoning problems are found in the Year 7 textbook including 19 Higher-LCD problems and 14 Lower-LCD problems. While, there are 30 proportional reasoning problems in the Year 8 textbooks consisting of 21 Higher-LCD problems and 9 Lower-LCD problems. There is no proportional reasoning problem found in the topics of percentage and probability. It is recommended that each chapter should have at least one proportional reasoning problem.


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