Rindu Alriavindra Funny, Muhammad Abdul Ghofur, Wuli Oktiningrum, Ni Luh Sakinah Nuraini


Reflective thinking is known as assessing what they know, what they need to know, and how they bridge that gap during learning situations. Relating what students knew with what they learn today is not easy, sometimes they forget or just cannot make a connection between it. This study will analyze how the students actively participating in reflective thinking by creating project-based learning on statistics lesson based on design research. Thirty-nine engineering students, in a group of four, were asked to make their own data, analyze and transfer it into a poster to inform the readers about the use of statistics in daily life. This study used the measurement of reflective thinking scales by Kember to analyze students answer through the worksheet and instructional activity. The instructional activity succeeds to reveals students thinking of all four skills; habitual action, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection. Furthermore, it also discovered the misuse of some terms when used in daily life.


reflective thinking, engineering students, statistics, design research

Full Text:



Agustan, S., Juniati, D., & Siswono, T.Y.E. (2017). Reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: a case study of field independent-prospective teacher. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 893(1), 012002.

Ahamad, S.N.S.H., Li, H.C., Shahrill, M., & Prahmana, R.C.I. (2018). Implementation of problem-based learning in geometry lessons. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 943(1), 012008.

Ahmad, S., Prahmana, R.C.I., Kenedi, A.K., Helsa, Y., Arianil, Y., & Zainil, M. (2018). The instruments of higher order thinking skills. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 943(1), 012053.

Ambrose, R. (2004). Initiating change in prospective elementary school teachers' orientations to mathematics teaching by building on beliefs. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7(2), 91-119.

Anwar, L., Budayasa, I.K., Amin, S.M., & de Haan, D. (2012). Eliciting mathematical thinking of students through Realistic Mathematics Education. Journal on Mathematics Education, 3(1), 55-70.

Betne, P. (2009). Reflection as a learning tool in mathematics. Transit: The LaGuardia Journal on Teaching and Learning, 4, 93-101.

Dündar, S., & Gündüz, N. (2017). Justification for the Subject of Congruence and Similarity in the Context of Daily Life and Conceptual Knowledge. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(1), 35-54.

Funny, R.A. (2019). Prompting the use of online application on smartphone (integral calculator) in learning integration techniques. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1200(1), 012017.

Gelter, H. (2003). Why is reflective thinking uncommon. Reflective Practice, 4(3), 337-344.

Grant, M.M. (2002). Getting a grip on project-based learning: Theory, cases and recommendations. Meridian: A Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, 5(1), 83-99.

Kember, D., Leung, D.Y., Jones, A., Loke, A.Y., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., ... & Yeung, E. (2000). Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(4), 381-395.

Khalid, F., Ahmad, M., Karim, A.A., Daud, M.Y., & Din, R. (2015). Reflective thinking: an analysis of students’ reflections in their learning about computers in education. Creative Education, 6(20), 2160-2168.

Kizilkaya, G. & Askar, P. (2009). The development of a reflective thinking skill scale towards problem solving. Education and Science, 34(154), 82-92.

Kusumaningsih, W., Darhim, Herman, T., & Turmudi. (2018). Improvement Algebraic Thinking Ability Using Multiple Representation Strategy on Realistic Mathematics Education. Journal on Mathematics Education, 9(2), 281-290.

Kuswandono, P. (2017). Reflective practices for teacher education. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, 15(1), 149-162.

McCoy, B. (2013). Active and reflective learning to engage all students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1(3), 146-153.

Muhtadi, D., Sukirwan, Warsito, & Prahmana, R.C.I. (2017). Sundanese ethnomathematics: mathematical activities in estimating, measuring, and making patterns. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(2), 185-198.

Palinussa, A. L. (2013). Students’ critical mathematical thinking skills and character: Experiments for junior high school students through realistic mathematics education culture-based. Journal on Mathematics Education, 4(1), 75-94.

Porntaweekul, S., Raksasataya, S., & Nethanomsak, T. (2015). Development of the reflective thinking instructional model for student teacher. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 11(1-2), 24-32.

Ramsey, C. (2006). Introducing Reflective Learning. The Open University, UK: Thanet Press Limited.

Rumsey, D. (2006). Probability for Dummies. Indiana Polis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Saleh, M., Prahmana, R.C.I., Isa, M., & Murni. (2018). Improving the reasoning ability of elementary school student through the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education. Journal on Mathematics Education, 9(1), 41-54.

Shahrill, M., Putri, R.I.I., Zulkardi, & Prahmana, R.C.I. (2018). Processes involved in solving mathematical problems. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1952(1), 020019.

Smith, G. (1998). Learning statistics by doing statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 6(3), 1-12.

Tanujaya, B., Prahmana, R.C.I., & Mumu, J. (2018). Designing learning activities on conditional probability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1088(1), 012087.

Tuncer, M., & Ozeren, E. (2012). Prospective teachers’ evaluations in terms of using reflective thinking skills to solve problems. Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 666–671.

Van Es, J.M. (2006). Encouraging reflective thinking in the high school classroom: Effective use of questioning and wait time strategies. Master Thesis. Iowa: Dordt University.

Walker, D. (2006). Toward productive design studies: Why now? In Akker, J.Van den et al. (Eds). Educational Design Research. London and New York: Routledge-Taylor & Francis Group.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal on Mathematics Education
Doctoral Program on Mathematics Education
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sriwijaya
Kampus FKIP Bukit Besar
Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar
Palembang - 30139

p-ISSN: 2087-8885 | e-ISSN: 2407-0610

Creative Commons License
Journal on Mathematics Education (JME) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats