Jihyun Hwang, Yeajin Ham


We investigated how the opportunity to learn (OTL) with different types of mathematics tasks are related to mathematical literacy and the role of perceived control in the relationship between OTL and mathematical literacy. The structural equation modeling was applied to the data of 1,649 Korean students from the PISA 2012 database. OTL with the four different types of tasks – algebraic word problems, procedural tasks, pure mathematics reasoning, and applied mathematics reasoning – were measured via student survey on how often they have encountered each type of task in their mathematics lessons and tests. The results showed that OTL with the procedural tasks was likely to increase mathematical literacy directly and indirectly through internal perceived control. Engaging in the applied reasoning tasks is positively related to external perceived control, but negatively to mathematical literacy.


Opportunity to Learn; Mathematical Tasks; Mathematical Literacy; Perceived Control; PISA 2012

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Journal on Mathematics Education
Doctoral Program on Mathematics Education
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