TEACHERS EXPECTATION OF STUDENTS’ THINKING PROCESSES IN WRITTEN WORKS: A SURVEY OF TEACHERS’ READINESS IN MAKING THINKING VISIBLE

Abdur Rahman As'ari, Dian Kurniati, Subanji Subanji

Abstract


The trends of teaching mathematical thinking and the existence of two thinking skills (critical dan creative thinking) the required by 21st-century skills have created needs for teachers to know their students’ thinking processes. This study is intended to portray how mathematics teachers expect their students showing their thinking processes in students’ written work. The authors surveyed Whatsapp and Telegram group of mathematics teachers. First, the authors shared the result of the literature review and the governmental regulations about the need to develop thinking skills. Second, the authors stated that the potentials of students’ written works as a tool for knowing students’ thinking processes. Third, the authors sent a simple mathematical problem with the topic of algebra and asked the mathematics teachers how should their students answer that problem such that they can easily monitor and assess their students’ thinking processes. A total of 25 teachers participated voluntarily in this survey. Results of the survey were triangulated with direct trial data in lecture classes at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The result indicates that participating mathematics teachers do not expect too much for their students to show their thinking processes in written work. Teacher’s focus is mostly on the accuracy and the correctness of their students’ mathematics answer.

Keywords


mathematics teachers’ expectation, making thinking visible, thinking processes, written works

Full Text:

PDF

References


Argina, A.W., Mitra, D., Ijabah, N., & Setiawan, R. (2017). Indonesia Pisa Result : What Faktors and What Should be Fixed? The 1st Education and Language International Conference Proceedings Center for International Developmentof Unissula, 69–79.

As’ari, A.R., Mahmudi, A., & Nuerlaelah, E. (2017). Our Prospective Mathematic Teachers Are Not Critical Thinkers Yet. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(2), 145–156. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.2.3961.145-156.

Burns, D.E., Leppien, J., Stuart, O., Gubbins, E.J., Muller, L., & Vahidi, S. (2006). Teachers’ Guide for the Explicit Teaching of Thinking Skills. Retrieved from https://nrcgt.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/953/2015/04/rm06218.pdf.

Celik, A.O., & Guzel, B.E. (2017). Mathematics Teachers ’ Knowledge of Student. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(2), 199–210. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.2.4144.199-210

Chaqmaqchee, Z.A. (2015). Teacher’s Attitude into Different Approach to Providing Feedback to Students in Higher Education. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(2), 150–162. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1083811&site=ehost-live.

Cho, J.H. (2014). Teachers’ perceptions of changes to teaching practice and the influence of professional development: Experienced EFL teachers in South Korea. Victoria University of Wellington.

Clark, D., Roche, A., Cheeseman, J., & Sulivan, P. (2014). Encouraging students to persist when working on challenging tasks Some insights from tea. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 70(1), 1–11.

Cohen-Sayag, E. (2016). Student-teachers Across the Curriculum Learn to Write Feedback Does it reflect on their writing? The Journal of Effective Teaching, 16(2), 5–19. Retrieved from http://www.uncw.edu/jet/articles/Vol16_2/Cohen-sayag.pdf.

Cook, J.W. (2014). Sustainable school leadership: The teachers’ perspective. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 9(1), 1–17.

Costello, J., & Crane, D. (2013). Technologies for Learner-Centered Feedback. Open Praxis, 5(3), 217–225.

Fonseca, J., Carvalho, C., Conboy, J., Valente, M., Gama, A., Salema, M., & Fiúza, E. (2015). Changing Teachers’ Feedback Practices: A Workshop Challenge. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(40), 59-- 82. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2015v40n8.4.

Fu, T., & Nassaji, H. (2016). Corrective feedback, learner uptake, and feedback perception in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 159–181. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.1.8.

Gjerde, K.P., Padgett, M.Y., & Skinner, D. (2017). The impact of process vs. outcome feedback on student performance and perceptions. International Journal of the Academic Business World, 13(1), 73–82.

Hollebrands, K.F., & Dick, T.P. (2009). Focus in High School Mathematics: Technology to Support Reasoning and Sense Making. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

Katagiri, S. (2004). Mathematical Thinking and How to Teach it. Tokyo: Meijitosyo Publishers.

Kay, K. (2009). 21st Century Skills: Why They Matter, What They Are, and How We Get There. In J. Bellanca & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn (1st ed., pp. xiii–xxxi). Retrieved from https://faculty.uoit.ca/kay/courses/educ5303g/lessons/lesson5/21Century_Skills.pdf.

Ketelaar, E. (2012). Teachers and Innovations: on the role of ownership, sense-making, and agency. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.6100/IR732586.

Li, N., Mok, I., & Cao, Y. (2019). The Evolution of Mathematical Thinking in Chinese Mathematics Education. Mathematics, 7(3), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/math7030297.

Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. (2016). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Pemerintah Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 2016 Tentang Standar Isi Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah [Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Government of Indonesia Number 21 of 2016 concerning Basic and Secondary Education Content Standards]. Jakarta, 6 June 2016.

National Education Association. (2014). Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society: An Educator ’ s Guide to the “ Four Cs .” 1–38.

Neumann, M.D. (2014). Mathematics Teaching : Interpreting and Responding to Children ’ s Thinking. Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 6(3), 1–28.

OECD. (2017). How does PISA for Development measure mathematical literacy? PISA for Development Brief, I(February 2014), 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264208780-en.

Osterbur, M.E., Hammer, E., & Hammer, E. (2016). Does Mechanism Matter? Student Recall of Electronic versus Handwritten Feedback. Georgia Educational Researcher, 9(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2015.090107.

Pacific Policy Research Center. (2010). 21 st Century Skills for Students and Teachers. Research & Evaluation, (August), 1–25. Retrieved from www.ksbe.edu/spi.

Prenzel, M., Blum, W., & Klieme, E. (2015). Assessing Mathematical Literacy. In Assessing Mathematical Literacy: The PISA Experience. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10121-7.

Puri, I., & Ilma, R. (2014, March). Evaluasi program pelatihan pendidikan matematika realistik indonesia (PMRI) bagi guru matematika Sumatera Selatan [Evaluation of Indonesia's realistic mathematics education training program (PMRI) for mathematics teachers in South Sumatra]. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Evaluasi Pendidikan (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 522-527). Program Studi PEP Program Pascasarjana UNJ.

Small, M. (2017). Teaching Mathematical Thinking: Tasks and Questions for Strengthen Practices and Processes. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Stacey, K. (2006). What Is Mathematical Thinking and Why Is It Important? Progress Report of the APEC Project: Collaborative Studies on Innovations for Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Different Cultures (II)—Lesson Study Focusing on Mathematical Thinking. Retrieved from Http://E-Archives.Criced.Tsukuba.Ac.Jp/Data/Doc/Pdf/2. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312457429.

Stacey, K. (2011). The PISA view of mathematical literacy in Indonesia. Indonesian Mathematical Society Journal on Mathematics Education, 2(2), 95–126. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.746.95-126.

The Royal Society. (2014). Vision for science and mathematics education. Retrieved from https://royalsociety.org/~/media/education/policy/vision/reports/vision-full-report-20140625.pdf.

Vockley, M., & Lang, V. (2008). 21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. https://doi.org/6th August 2016.

Zhu, Y., Yu, W., & Cai, J. (2018). Understanding students’ mathematical thinking for effective teaching: A comparison between expert and nonexpert chinese elementary mathematics teachers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(1), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/78241.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.10.3.7978.409-424

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Journal on Mathematics Education
Program S3(Doktor) Pendidikan Matematika FKIP Universitas Sriwijaya
Kampus FKIP Bukit Besar
Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar
Palembang - 30139
email: jme@unsri.ac.id

p-ISSN: 2087-8885 | e-ISSN: 2407-0610
Journal on Mathematics Education is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats