Cholis Sa'dijah, Wasilatul Murtafiah, Lathiful Anwar, Rini Nurhakiki, Ety Tejo Dwi Cahyowati


This case study aims to explore how male and female Indonesian mathematics teachers enact decision-making processes in teaching High-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Non-random purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. The participants involved in this study were two Indonesian mathematics teachers who teach HOTS in their classrooms. The participants were chosen from 87 Indonesian mathematics teachers in 23 secondary schools in East Java, Indonesia, who were invited to our survey and confirmed that they taught HOTS and underwent classroom observation. Data were collected from classroom teaching and interview sessions. The data of classroom teaching consisted of a video-audio recording of two meetings and field notes of observation. In the interview session, we recorded the teachers’ responses during semi-structured interviews. We coded and explained our interpretation for each code. We also conducted investigator triangulation by comparing coding and interpretation made by two researchers and discussing them to find the best representation of the meaning of the data. Our findings indicate that both male and female teachers performed four steps of decision making, consisting of giving problems, asking students to solve, checking, and obtaining new ideas. The difference of male and female teachers’ decision-making process is observed in the process of giving problem (non-contextual vs contextual), how they ask students to solve and check the solution (individual vs group), and the criteria of the new idea of problem-solving (correct vs the best solution). The study findings can be a catalyst for enacting decision-making steps in teaching HOTS. Also, these can be a reflective practice for mathematics teachers to improve their teaching quality.


Teaching HOTS; Decision-making; Gender

Full Text:



Abdullah, A. H., Mokhtar, M., Halim, N. D. A., Ali, D. F., Tahir, L. M., & Kohar, U. H. A. (2017). Mathematics teachers’ level of knowledge and practice on the implementation of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00601a

Alhassora, N. syuhada A., Abu, M. S., & Abdullah, A. H. (2017). Inculcating higher order thinking skills in mathematics: Why is it so hard? Man in India, 13(97), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10274-012-0006-7

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Apino, E., & Retnawati, H. (2017). Developing Instructional Design to Improve Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 812(1), 012100. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/812/1/012100

Arzarello, F., Ascari, M., Thomas, M., & Yoon, C. (2011). Teaching Practice: A Comparison Of Two Teachers’ Decision Making In The Mathematics Classroom. 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2, 65–72.

Bakry, & Bakar, M. N. (2015). The Process of Thinking among Junior High School Students in Solving HOTS Question. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(3), 138–145. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v4i3.4504

Belo, N. A. H., Van Driel, J. H., Van Veen, K., & Verloop, N. (2014). Beyond the dichotomy of teacher- versus student-focused education: A survey study on physics teachers’ beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of physics education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39(2014), 89–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.12.008

Beswick, K. (2005). The beliefs/practice connection in broadly defined contexts. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 17(2), 39–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03217415

Borko, H., Roberts, S. A., & Shavelson, R. (2008). Teachers’ Decision Making: from Alan J. Bishop to Today. In Critical Issues in Mathematics Education Major Contribution of Alan Bishop (pp. 37–70). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09673-5

Chudgar, A., & Sankar, V. (2008). The relationship between teacher gender and student achievement: evidence from five Indian states. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 38(5), 627–642. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920802351465

Cokely, E. T., & Kelley, C. M. (2009). Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk: A protocol analysis and process model evaluation. Judgment and Decision Making, 4(1), 20–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2009.04.001

Dede, Y. (2013). Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers ’ Decision Making Processes in Group Studies. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(1), 690–706.

Facione, N. C., & Facione, P. A. (2008). Critical Thinking and Clinical Judgment. In Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning in the Health Sciences: A Teaching Anthology (pp. 1–13). Insight Assessment / The California Academic Press: Millbrae CA. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2010.12.016

Freudenthal, H. (1973). Mathematics as an educational task. Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company.

Goethals, P. L. (2013). The Pursuit of Higher-Order Thinking in the Mathematics Classroom. Center for Faculty Excellence, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Handayani, U. F., Sa’dijah, C., Sisworo, Sa’diyah, M., & Anwar, L. (2020). Mathematical creative thinking skill of middle-ability students in solving contextual problems. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2215(April), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0000645

Haroun, R. F., Ng, D., Abdelfattah, F. A., & AlSalouli, M. S. (2016). Gender Difference in Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Context of Single-Sex Classrooms. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(Suppl 2), 383–396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-015-9631-8

Harpster, D. L. (1999). A Study of Possible Factors that Influence the Construction of Teacher-Made Problems that Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills. Montana State University. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2010.06.032

Hendriana, H., Prahmana, R. C. I., & Hidayat, W. (2019). The Innovation of Learning Trajectory on Multiplication Operations for Rural Area Students in Indonesia. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(3), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.10.3.9257.397-408

Henningsen, M., & Stein, M. K. (1997). Mathematical Tasks and Student Cognition: Classroom-Based Factors That Support and Inhibit High-Level Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5), 524-549. https://doi.org/10.2307/749690

Heong, Y. M., Ping, K. H., Yunos, J. M., Othman, W., Kiong, T. T., Mohamad, M. M., & Ching, K. B. (2019). Effectiveness of integration of learning strategies and higher-order thinking skills for generating ideas among technical students. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 11(3), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.30880/jtet.2019.11.03.005

Hill, H. C., Schilling, S. G., & Ball, D. L. (2004). Developing measures of teachers’ mathematics knowledge for teaching. The Elementary School Journal, 105(1), 11–30. https://doi.org/ 10.1086/428763

Kemdikbud. (2016). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No.23 tahun 2016 tentang standar penilaian. Jakarta: Kemdikbud.

Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., & Yovanoff, P. (2009). Diagnostic Assessments in Mathematics to Support Instructional Decision Making. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 14(16), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.7275/vxrk-3190

Kholid, M., Sa’dijah, C., Hidayanto, E., & Permadi, H. (2020). How are Students’ Reflective Thinking for Problem Solving? Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(3), 1135–1146. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.688210

King, F. J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F. (1998). Higher Order Thinking Skills. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Kosko, K. W. (2016). Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers Decision Making: The Questions They Ask and The Tasks They Select. In Proceedings of the 38th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Pyschology of Mathematics Education (pp. 1341–1344).

Kruger, K. (2013). Higher-Order Thinking. New York: Hidden Sparks, Inc.

Kurtulus, A., & Ada, T. (2017). Evaluation of Mathematics Teacher Candidates’ the Ellipse Knowledge According to the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(10), 1782–1794. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.051017

Lande, E., & Mesa, V. (2016). Instructional decision making and agency of community college mathematics faculty. ZDM - Mathematics Education, 48(1–2), 199–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-015-0736-x

Lewis, A., & Smith, D. (1993). Defining Higher Order Thinking. Theory Into Practice, 32(3), 131–137. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849309543588

Lopez, J., & Whittington, M. S. (2001). Higher-order thinking in a college course: A case study. NACTA Journal, December, 22–29. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1508545110?accountid=7374

Maulana, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., & van de Grift, W. (2015). A longitudinal study of induction on the acceleration of growth in teaching quality of beginning teachers through the eyes of their students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 51(2015), 225–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.07.003

Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M. C., Stroet, K., & Bosker, R. (2012). Observed lesson structure during the first year of secondary education: Exploration of change and link with academic engagement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 835–850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.03.005

Miles, M., Huberman, M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis. European Journal of Science Education, 1(4), 427-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/0140528790010406

Miri, B., David, B. C., & Uri, Z. (2007). Purposely teaching for the promotion of higher-order thinking skills: A case of critical thinking. Research in Science Education, 37(4), 353–369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-006-9029-2

Muhtarom, M., Juniati, D., & Siswono, T. Y. E. (2019). Examining Prospective Teachers’ Belief and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Towards Teaching Practice in Mathematics Class: a Case Study. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(2), 185–202. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.10.2.7326.185-202

Murtafiah, W., Sa’dijah, C., Candra, T. D., Susiswo, S., & As’ari, A. R. (2018). Exploring the Explanation of Pre-Service Teacher in Mathematics Teaching Practice. Journal on Mathematics Education, 9(2), 259–270. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.9.2.5388.259-270

Murtafiah, W., Sa’dijah, C., Chandra, T. D., & Susiswo. (2020). Exploring the Types of Problems Task by Mathematics Teacher to Develop Students’ HOTS. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2215(1), 060018. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0000656

NCTM. (2000). Six Principles for School Mathematics. In National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 1–6). Retrieved from http://www.nctm.org/uploadedFiles/Math_Standards/12752_exec_pssm.pdf

Pogrow, S. (2005). HOTS Revisited:A Thinking Development Approach to Reducing the Learning Gap After Grade 3. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(1), 64–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170508700111

Rubin, J., & Rajakaruna, M. (2015). Teaching and Assessing Higher Order Thinking in the Mathematics Classroom with Clickers. Mathematics Education, 10(1), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.12973/mathedu.2015.103a

Sa’dijah, C., Handayani, U. F., Sisworo, Sudirman, Susiswo, Cahyowati, E. T. D., & Sa’diyah, M. (2019). The Profile of Junior High School Students ’ Mathematical Creative Thinking Skills in Solving Problem through Contextual Teaching. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(1), 012081. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012081

Sa’dijah, C., Sa’diyah, M., Sisworo, & Anwar, L. (2020). Students’ mathematical dispositions towards solving HOTS problems based on FI and FD cognitive style. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2215(1), 060025. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0000644

Sa’diyah, M., Sa’dijah, C., Sisworo, & Handayani, U. F. (2019). How Students Build Their Mathematical Dispositions towards Solving Contextual and Abstract Mathematics Problems. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(1), 012090. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012090

Saldaña, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London EC1Y 1SP: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Samo, D. D., Darhim, D., & Kartasasmita, B. (2017). Developing Contextual Mathematical Thinking Learning Model to Enhance Higher-Order Thinking Ability for Middle School Students. International Education Studies, 10(12), 17-29. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n12p17

Saragih, S., Napitupulu, E. E., & Fauzi, A. (2017). Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability. International Education Studies, 10(6), 114-122. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n6p114

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2011). Toward professional development for teachers grounded in a theory of decision making. ZDM Mathematics Education, 43, 457–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-011-0307-8

Scott, C. L. (2015). What Kind of Learning for the 21st Century? Education Research and Foresight, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Sirajuddin, Sa’dijah, C., Parta, I. N., & Sukoriyanto. (2020). Multi-representation raised by prospective mathematics teachers in expressing algebra. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(2), 857–870. https://doi.org/10.17478/JEGYS.688710

Smail, L. (2017). Using Bayesian Networks to Understand Relationships among Math Anxiety, Genders, Personality Types, And Study Habits At a University In Jordan. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(1), 17–34. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3405.17-34

Stein, M. K., & Kaufman, J. H. (2010). Selecting and Supporting the Use of Mathematics Curricula at Scale. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 663–693. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209361210

Swartz, R. J., Fischer, S. D., & Parks, S. (1998). Infusing the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking into Secondary Science: A Lesson Design Handbook. New Jersey: Critical Thinking Books & Software.

Thompson, T. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s taxonomy. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(2), 96–109. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.318.5856.1534

Wang, Y., & Ruhe, G. (2007). The Cognitive Process of Decision Making. Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence, 1(2), 73–85. https://doi.org/10.4018/jcini.2007040105

Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Patel, S., & Patel, D. (2006). A layered reference model of the brain (LRMB). IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part C: Applications and Reviews, 36(2), 124–133. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSMCC.2006.871126

Weiss, R. E. (2003). Designing problems to promote higher-order thinking. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 95(Fall), 25–31. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.109

Wheary, J., & Ennis, R. H. (1995). Gender Bias In Critical Thinking: Continuing The Dialogue. Educational Theory, 45(2), 213–223.

Widjaja, W. (2013). The use of contextual problems to support mathematical learning. Journal on Mathematics Education, 4(2), 151–159. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.413.151-159

Wilson, L. O. (2016). Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Understanding the New Version of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Yazici, E., & Ertekin, E. (2010). Gender differences of elementary prospective teachers in mathematical beliefs and mathematics teaching anxiety. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 67(7), 128–131. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1084198

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.12.1.13087.159-180


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal on Mathematics Education
Doctoral Program on Mathematics Education
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sriwijaya
Kampus FKIP Bukit Besar
Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar
Palembang - 30139
email: jme@unsri.ac.id

p-ISSN: 2087-8885 | e-ISSN: 2407-0610

Creative Commons License
Journal on Mathematics Education (JME) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats