Farida Nursyahidah, Ratu Ilma Indra Putri, Somakim Somakim


This research aim is to know the students' understanding in adding number up to 20 using traditional game of dakocan and to acquire learning trajectory of adding number up to 20 using traditional game of dakocan for the first grade of primary school. This research used methodology of design research that consists of three phases, there are preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. Subject of this study is 33 first grade students of Sekolah Dasar Negeri (SDN) 98 Palembang as one of partners' school of Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI). The result of this research shows that the students' understanding in adding number up to 20 can be stimulated by using traditional game of dakocan as a context. All of strategies and model that is used by students and also their result discussion shows how construction and contribution of students can help them to understand concept of adding number up to 20. All the activities that are done by students produce learning trajectory to gain the goal of learning. Each steps of learning trajectory of students has an important role in understanding the concept from informal to the formal level. Learning trajectory using dakocan that is produced consist of playing dakocan, put the model of dakocan to the frame ten dakomatika to understand the relation of part and whole of ten combination in adding number, and solving contextual problem in adding number up to 20.


Adding Number; Dakocan; PMRI

Full Text:



Armanto, D. (2002). Teaching Multiplication and Division Realistically in Indonesian Primary Schools: A Prototype of Local Instructional Theory. Doctoral Dissertation. Enschede: University Twente.

Butterworth, B. (2005). The Development of Arithmetical Abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46 (1), 3-18. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00374.x.

Charitas, R. (2012). Learning Multiplication Using Indonesian Traditional game in Third Grade. IndoMS-Journal on Mathematics Education, 3 (2), 115-132. Palembang: IndoMS. Available at

Depdikbud. (1985). Permainan Anak-anak Daerah Sumsel. Palembang: Depdikbud.

Fosnot, C. T. & Dolk, M. (2001). Young Mathematicians at Work: Constructing Number Sense, Addition, and Subtraction. Portsmouth: HEINEMENN.

Freudenthal, H. (1973). Mathematics as An Educational Task. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Freudenthal, H. (1991). Revisiting Mathematics Education: China Lectures. Dordecht: Kluwer Academics Publisher.

Gelman, R., & Gallistel, C. (1978). The Child’s Understanding of Number. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gravemeijer, K. (1994). Developing Realistic Mathematics Education. Utrecht: Technipress, Culemborg.

Gravemeijer, K. & Cobb, P. (2006). Design Research from the Learning Design Perspective. In Akker, J.V.D., Gravemeijer, K., McKenney, S., and Nieveen, N (Eds.), Educational Design Research

(pp. 17-51). London: Routledge.

Jaelani, A. (2012). Students’ Strategies of Measuring Time Using Traditional Gasing Game in Third Grade of Primary School. IndoMS-Journal on Mathematics Education, 3 (2), 213-224. Palembang: IndoMS. Available at

Meliasari. (2008). Abbreviating Strategies of Addition and Subtraction up to 20 through Structures. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Matematika 14, 833-839.

National Council of Teacher of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. USA: NCTM.

Putra, Z. P. (2011). Supporting Fir t Grade Students Learning Number Facts Up To 10 Using A Parrot Game. IndoMS-Journal on Mathematics Education, 2 (2), 163-172. Palembang: IndoMS. Available at

Simon, M. A. & Tzur, R. (2004). Explicating the Role of Mathematical Tasks in Conceptual Learning: An Elaboration of the Hypothetical Learning Trajctiry. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 6(2), 91-104.

Somakim. (2008). Unit 2: Teori Belajar Dienes. In Nyimas Aisyah, dkk (Eds.). Bahan ajar Cetak: Pengembangan Pembelajaran Matematika Sekolah Dasar, (pp. 2-1 – 2-42). Jakarta: Direktorat

Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi.

Somakim. (2011). Peningkatan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa Sekolah Menengah Pertama dengan Penggunaan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik. Forum MIPA, 14 (1). Palembang: Sriwijaya University

Torbeyns, J., Verschaffel, L., & Ghesquière, P. (2004). Strategic aspects of simple addition and subtraction: the influence of mathematical ability. Learning and Instruction, 14, 177-195.

Zulkardi & Ilma, R. (2006). Mendesain Sendiri Soal Kontekstual Matematika. Prosiding KNM 13. Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Zulkardi. (2002). Developing a Learning Environment on Realistic Mathematics Education for Indonesian Student Teachers. Published Thesis. The Netherlands: PrinPartners Ipskamp- Enschede.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal on Mathematics Education
Doctoral Program on Mathematics Education
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sriwijaya
Kampus FKIP Bukit Besar
Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar
Palembang - 30139

p-ISSN: 2087-8885 | e-ISSN: 2407-0610
Journal on Mathematics Education is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats